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Jewels in the Muck



Muck diving in Bali

There is nothing as satisfying as a cup of hot strong sweet black Balinese coffee, served in a glass on the beach after your first muck dive. And there is nothing as astonishing as the critters you find in the old car tyres, empty beer bottles, lost bikini tops and empty foil packets covered in ancient volcanic ash silt.

Adi Assri Resort

This is Muck Diving in Bali. As a spoiled South African Sodwana Bay diver and a confirmed addict of well-balanced reefs, pristine corals and beautiful shoals, I had never realised that there could be a secret thriving world of resourceful marine life in the desert wastes of the undersea world, where tides regularly sweep away their habitat and man provides most of their hiding places.

It was a 10 hour flight on Air Malaysia to Kuala Lumpur, then a short 2.5 hour transfer to Bali, which is 6 hours ahead of South Africa. We paid extra for the VIP Meet and Greet and Border Visa service offered by our Dive Operator and we were whisked through the airport immigration as “crew” and through customs in 5 minutes. The Dive Operator’s air-conditioned mini bus carried us through the ancient Spice Island plantations of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves, and we arrived at the Adi Assri resort in Gilimanauk, home for our first week. We spent the next day getting used to the new time zone and discovering that fruit and fresh vegetables are very big in Bali, Bintang Beer excellent, and Balinese food is best – Hindu’s are not big on beef, so avoid steaks at all costs. Magnum ice-cream is everywhere. Cash is best from ATMs, not money changers who cheat; plastic accepted in urban areas.

Secret Bay

Parman and Wayan

Secret Bay on the North-western tip of Bali is mind-blowingly ugly. Surrounded by mud flats and mangroves with dirty black sand covered in silt deposits, this world famous dive site looked truly awful. It is tidal, so you have to dive it when the tide is rising, or it’s too murky to see.  You have to completely change your perception of marine life. It is not all as delicate and fragile as we think. Some of it is tenacious, vigorous and adaptable, and the rarest life forms are found in the most inhospitable places.

We had elected to pay extra for a private dive guide and Parman the dive guide and Wayan the driver were to be our mentors for our entire 25 day stay in Bali.

At the shore entry point there was everything a diver needs – change rooms, showers, cleanish Balinese loos with no paper but a sort of bum-shower arrangement that was a bit disconcerting until one got the hang of it, fresh water troughs where our mentors rinsed the gear, and an ethnic cafe bar where we had lunch, part of the dive package. We kitted up on shore, and sank gently in 28 degree crystal clear water and silt coated rubbish. Finning cautiously to avoid stirring up the silt we drifted down to a maximum depth of 8 metres, scouring the silt for critters.

Bangai Damsels

In a pile of discarded burglar guards, we found the first of the muck jewels – a school of Banggai Damsels. Long- spined sea urchins hosted the juveniles, who later graduate to bigger hideouts.

Then Parman found a Mimic Octopus. This was incredible luck, as he is still un-described. He defends himself from predators by mimicking poisonous or unpalatable creatures. He was outraged at being spotted, and quickly reformatted himself into a poisonous brittlestar, hoping he would fool us.

Mimic Octopus

We saw drifts of shrimpfish, bobbing mouth-down as they hoovered up minute particles of food; we saw common and rare seahorse, a plumed shrimp and coral crabs, a juvenile Oriental Sweetlips,  schools of batfish, fusiliers and cardinals, both familiar and rare. There were poisonous banded sea-snakes, coiled in hollows, covered in silt and disguised as sea cucumber turds. Our last find was the highly sought after Mandarin fish (Synchiropus Splendidus). He was hiding in a pile of discarded nets, and exquisitely colourful.

Critters are nervous. They can never be sure whether their homes will still be there when they return from feeding, as the plastic bags move with the currents and the tides. It needs a trained eye to spot them and Parman had an amazing knack for finding rare things. We spent 180 minutes underwater over our 2 dives, used up all our air and took 380 photographs. It was one of the most outstanding sites I have ever dived.

Plumed Shrimp (Leander Piumosus). Rare and gorgeous.

That evening we discovered Bali’s second best secret. There are skilled masseurs all over the island, most hotels and resorts have spas and they all offer Balinese massage. You haven’t lived till you’ve tried one. It costs around R150, lasts an hour or so and creates the most blissfully languid feeling after a hard day’s work lying in warm water looking at beautiful things.

Puri Jati

Spanner Crabs and Snake Eels


Our next major dive site was Tulamben where we were to spend another week. On the way we stopped for two dives at Puri Jati, a small Northern coastal farming community, where families cultivate the rice using hysterical little two-wheeled tractors. Wherever we went there were little palm baskets of flowers and rice in miniature temples and on pathways. We enjoyed the flowers, the birds ate the rice. This culture of sharing one’s bounty with others pervades Balinese culture, and makes for a wonderful feeling of harmony on the island. The only Hindu Island in Islamic Indonesia, Bali is volcanic, suffers occasional earthquakes and their Hindu religion pacifies their gods and keeps the volcano quiet. Rice paddy terraces are everywhere, and temples and exotic flower gardens in even the humblest homes.

In Bali, a diver’s most basic needs are met at every dive site. Our gear was carried down to the beach and again, we kitted on the shore. In Bali the men take care of the gear while the women are the porters. We sank into crystal clear water, on strangely round-grained fine sand with very little silt. But this was desert. No rubbish or rubble, nothing but sand.

Napoleon Snake Eel (Ophrychthys Bonaparti)

We wandered after Parman, wondering why we were wasting time on this barren place, when his critter hooter sounded and we finned up to him. It was a Pegasus Sea Moth. Rarely spotted, this solitary sand dweller was walking purposefully across the sand on his “feet” – his fused pectoral fins. And right beside it was the most exquisite little creature, swallowing and gasping and finning round in circles – a very juvenile pufferfish, the size of a thumb nail.

As the sandy bottom began to slope we found a mooring rope attached to a pair of old car tyres. Inside was this exquisite, juvenile lion fish right beside the elusive and quite beautiful Ornate Ghost Pipefish. The colours of the stripes were the same on both, and they looked almost as though they had been colour-matched by an interior designer.

The slop began to come alive as we got used to a whole new way of looking at the undersea world. Suddenly we began to notice the minute partner shrimps in the anemones, the strange yellow and brown blobs in the sand that were three types of snake eels. All you could see of them was their snouts and their unblinking eyes, and rare and unusual creatures began to come into focus. There were half a dozen species of lizard fish. There was a drab brown silt covered sea horse that shied away as we approached. There was a minute squat lobster clinging to a sea pen, and a minute red juvenile frogfish.

Commensual Sea Pen Shrimp (not identified)

One creature needed no such focus though. He was 15cm across, planted four-square in the sand, hunkered down and immovable, and he made Parman’s day. We were still too unfamiliar with the Bali fauna to know how privileged we were to see him. He normally lies completely buried in sand, and our bible, Ferraris’ book Macrolife has a picture of him. It shows only his eyes and his antennae. He was a Spanner Crab (Ranina ranina), hard to spot, rarely seen, and posing for pictures. Parman’s smile lit up the micro-bus all the way to Tulamben.

Seraya Slope, Tulamben

Soft Silt and Giant Mantis Shrimps

The ash based silt coating the volcanic slope at Seraya, Tulamben was so fine that it was almost impossible to fin anywhere without clouding the water. As we inched cautiously across the rocky slope we noticed some large holes each about 12 centimeters across and beautifully lined with fine vegetable matter. Clearly the architect was a master of materials control, since they remained stable even in the friable silt. We had no idea what could have made them.

Boxer Crab (Lybia tesselata)

Our first critter was the Boxer Crab (Lybia tesselata). Difficult to find, shy and retiring, he arms the tips of his chelipeds with anemones whose sting protects him from predators. This rare and beautiful crab was out in the open, with his defences raised and a belligerent look on his face. He clearly had no idea how big we were, and was quite willing to fight us off if necessary. There were clumps of stunningly beautiful chrinoids, in every conceivable colour, and amongst them Parman found the Chrinoid squat lobster (Alogalathea elegans). It was not until we identified these two in Macrolife that we realised how rare these sightings were.

Chrinoid squat lobster (Alogalathea elegans)

As we reached the end of the dive Parman again found one of the mysterious lined holes, and began to scratch around the edges. We peered into the hole, and watched in astonishment as the most amazing creature began to emerge. The size of a rugby ball, it had 2 double eyes, and it looked like a Star Wars android. It was the Giant Mantis Shrimp, (Lysiosquillina lisa) the legendary creature capable of shattering the camera’s Ikelite lens housing. However, it was feeling benevolent, and posed for several photographs before growing bored and ducking back into its hole.

The Balinese people are essentially joyful, good humoured and happy. Thank you we say, you’re welcome, they reply with a smile, and they really mean it. When your world could vanish overnight with an exploding mountain on your doorstep, and an angry sea might threaten a tsunami, you have to be pretty philosophical. And if tourism is your source of revenue in a competitive world, you also have to be pretty cheap.


How to get there:

Malaysian Airlines

Who to dive with:

Aquamarine Diving is Bali’s only dive operation run by a British woman and is gob-smackingly efficient.

  • Air-conditioned Land Transport
  • Resort Accommodation
  • Diving
  • Lunch and Bottled Water

Best of Bali package: 8 days, 14 dives; accommodation included

Best time to travel:


References and Critter Identification:

  • Macrolife by Andrea and Antonella Ferrari
  • Fish Guide Indopacific by Helmut Debelius
  • Marine Fishes of South East Asia by Gerry Allen

Words: Jill Holloway

Pics: David Holloway

Jill Holloway lives in Mauritius and at Sodwana Bay Isimangaliso Wetland Park in South Africa. A PADI qualified Nitrox diver with over 1,500 dives, she is a passionate observer and preserver of the marine environment, and has a database of over 35,000 fish pics and hundreds of Gopro videos on fish behaviour, which she shares with her readers.

Gear Reviews

Gear Review: Mares EOS LRZ Torch Range



What does LRZ stand for I hear you ask? The answer is: LED lights, Rechargeable, Zoomable. Mares have created a versatile set of seven underwater lights in the new range to suit all needs and budgets.

I tested the most powerful of them – the EOS 32LRZ at Capernwray on a cold but bright spring day. I was diving with Alex Mustard, and so all the underwater images are by him, showing me trying out the torch in both the shallows and in some of the wrecks at this site.

All the torches in the new line have an LED visual battery charge indicator that allows you to keep the battery level under control.

Want to use it out of the water? No problem! The new EOS LRZ torches feature an innovative temperature control system that allows you to use them both underwater and on land. I can see myself using this on gloomy dog walks later in the year!

As you can see from the video I filmed just after getting back from a dive, the torch is easy to use, even with thick gloves in cold water. The zoomable light beam means that you can highlight a particular spot, or have a wide beam, which is great for both modeling for a photographer, and exploring different underwater environments.

The EOS 32LRZ has a powerful beam with 3200 lumens of power and 135 minutes of burn time. Perfect for some of the darker dives you can experience in the UK, but also for exploring overhead or enclosed environments. I easily got 2 long dives out of a single charge, and then was able to recharge it in my car using a USB cable on the way home, ready for the next day of diving.

The look and feel of these torches are great. In your hand you can feel the quality of the torches. They are solid and well built. They also look great. Each torch in the range comes with a padded case to keep them safe during transport.

For more, visit the Mares website by clicking here.

All underwater images by Alex Mustard

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Marine Life & Conservation

Reef-World launches Green Fins Japan!



The Reef-World Foundation, the Onna Village Diving Association, the local government, and Oceana are delighted to announce that Japan is now the 14th country globally to implement the Green Fins initiative – a UN Environment Programme initiative. Onna Village in Okinawa is the first Japanese tourist destination to adopt Green Fins environmental standards to reduce the threats associated with diving and snorkelling on the marine environment.

Green Fins is piloted in Onna Village, Okinawa prefecture, an area renowned for its marine sports and has been working to protect its reefs for many years. Green Fins is implemented as part of the national Sustainable Development Goals project, which aims to manage and illustrate to the local industry how sustainable tourism can play a role in reef conservation. The economic benefits of the reefs benefit not only the fisheries industry but also the tourism industry as it has rocketed in recent decades.

If the project is successful – proving the value of sustainable tourism – the model has the potential to be escalated to a national level. A wide rollout would allow Reef-World to focus on uptake and expansion into other marine tourism and biodiversity hotspots across Japan. Green Fins implementation in Japan would provide practical solutions to many of the common problems faced in the area. It would also help to promote high standards for diving in the country. Improving the quality of the diving industry through Green Fins would demonstrate the added value of Onna Village’s tourism product. This, in turn, will encourage tourists to spend more time and money diving in the region.

Following a week of training by Reef-World (23 to 28 May 2022), Japan now has a national Green Fins team comprised of four fully certified Green Fins Assessors and two Green Fins Coordinators from Oceana and the local government. They will be responsible for recruiting, assessing, training and certifying dive and snorkel operators to become Green Fins members in the country. This involves providing training about the ecology and threats to coral reefs, simple and local everyday solutions to these threats and Green Fins’ environmental standards to dive and snorkel operators. Green Fins membership will help marine tourism operators improve their sustainability and prove they are working hard to follow environmental best practices as a way of attracting eco-minded tourists.

James Harvey, Director at The Reef-World Foundation, said: “We are really excited to finally introduce Green Fins in Japan. We have been planning this for almost three years, but the travel restrictions related to the pandemic hindered progress. The diving industry in Okinawa and the marine life upon which it has been built is so unique, it must be preserved for generations to come. The Okinawa diving community is very passionate about protecting their marine environment, and Green Fins has given them an opportunity to collectively work to reduce their environmental impact and pursue exemplary environmental standards.”

Diving and snorkelling related damage to sensitive marine ecosystems, including coral reefs, is becoming an increasingly significant issue. This damage makes them less likely to survive other local and wider stressors, such as overfishing or plastic debris and the effects of climate change. Based on robust individual assessments, the Green Fins initiative helps identify and mitigate these risks by providing environmental consultation and support to dive and snorkel operators. Through Green Fins implementation in Japan, Reef-World aims to reduce negative environmental impacts in the region by reaching 10 marine tourism operators, training 50 dive guides and raising awareness of sustainability best practices among 10,000 tourists in the first year.

Yuta Kawamoto, CEO of Oceana, said: “Green Fins will help to unify all the conservation efforts in Okinawa by applying the guidelines in many areas and raising tourists awareness. We hope this will increase the sustainable value in the diving industry and in turn increase the diving standards in the country.”

Green Fins is a UN Environment Programme initiative, internationally coordinated by The Reef-World Foundation, which aims to protect and conserve coral reefs through environmentally friendly guidelines to promote a sustainable diving and snorkelling tourism industry. Green Fins provides the only internationally recognised environmental standards for the diving and snorkelling industry and has a robust assessment system to measure compliance.

To date, four dive operators in Onna Village have joined the global network of 600+ trained and assessed Green Fins members. These are: Benthos Divers, Okinawa Diving Center, Arch Angel and Pink Marlin Club. There has also been significant interest from other operators, even those that are not located in Onna Village, for Green Fins training and assessment.

Suika Tsumita from Oceana said: “Green Fins serve as an important tool for local diving communities to move towards a more sustainable use of their dive sites; so that they can maintain their scenic beauty and biological richness to provide livelihoods for many generations to come.”

For more information, please visit or Dive and snorkel operators interested in signing up for Green Fins can find the membership application form at:

Dive and snorkel operators in Japan interested in signing up to be Green Fins members can contact the Green Fins Japan team at

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Save up to 1/3 off a trip to Indonesia! Your chance to dive Bali, Komodo and Raja Ampat aboard the NEW luxury MY Emperor Harmoni for less! Launching in September 2022. Emperor Harmoni is Emperor Divers Indonesia’s brand new liveaboard. Built of Sulawesi Ironwood and offering a truly new experience to liveaboard holidays, experience a true sense of sailing the Indonesian seas in freedom, style, comfort and confidence with her two engines. Enjoy spacious diving and relaxation areas or relax with a massage on deck. Example price based on Bali departure to Komodo WAS £2900 / NOW from just £1995* per person based on sharing a twin luxury cabin including: 1 night in Bali before the boat departure with airport transfers One way flight from Labuan Bajo to Bali after the liveaboard with 20kgs baggage 7 nights onboard MY Emperor Harmoni with 3 meals a day, afternoon snacks, unlimited drinking water, tea & coffee All diving with guide, cylinders & weights, Marine Park & Port Fees Free Nitrox 1 cocktail party on a local island (weather allowing) Return airport transfers * Price excludes international flights, these can be quoted at the time of reservation Booking deadline: Subject to availability. Other Dates available - book before 30 September! Call Diverse Travel on 01473 852002 or email More Less

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