Connect with us

Photo / Video News & Reviews

Underwater Photography: Getting Started



I was talking to a friend the other day, a very experienced diver, and he told me that he really wants to improve his photography and asked for some advice, which of course I offered. I also pointed out that there were numerous people writing about the subject both on-line and in print. He said that he always gave up reading articles as he disliked the way in which they were written; either too geeky or too much me, me, me. So although not the first time this has been done, I thought I’d write a very straightforward piece about getting started in underwater photography.

I started out as a regular photographer, wildlife was my thing and I was fortunate enough to work alongside some pretty serious photographers, and I learnt a great deal. So when I started diving in the late 90’s my first thoughts were how I couldn’t wait to get my camera into the water. You can’t imagine my disappointment when I repeatedly produced rubbish, rubbish and more rubbish. All the stuff I’d learnt about photography over the years all of a sudden accounted for…nothing. You see underwater photography is more about diving skills and know how than it is about traditional photo technique. It is in fact, surprisingly, all about the water. On land you can plant your feet firmly on the ground, accurately compose your image and shoot. In the constantly moving underwater world this is not so easy. Additionally you’re shooting through one big murky filter – the water itself, which presents the biggest obstacles of all… and that is exactly what we’re going to discuss in this feature.

Diving Skills

First things first; before you even take a camera underwater you need to have a reasonable level of control over yourself in the water. It is very hard to compose an image if you’re drifting about all over the place, banging into the reef and your fellow divers. Many underwater photographic workshops even insist that you have a minimum number of dives before you can enrol on the course. Even the most experienced diver will experience difficulties when diving with a camera for the first time, especially larger cameras.

To help with this most dive clubs and shops offer courses to improve your buoyancy control. PADI, which is the largest of the diving organisations, offer a course called the PPB, which stands for Peak Performance Buoyancy. This tuition helps you maintain your position in the water and will massively help your photography and make you a better diver.

Of course there is no substitute for experience so practice, practice and more practice is the best route to better photos.


There are two key elements to underwater photography that make the difference between mediocrity and wow, look at that photo.

The first is wide angle lenses, and I don’t mean 28mm, I’m talking super wide. The second is colour correction; anybody who has taken a blue washed out underwater photo will know exactly what I mean. These are two cornerstones of UW photography and we’ll be looking at them in depth (forgiving the pun) later on, but it’s important to pick the right camera in the first place as many excellent cameras topside are limited down under.

The majority of compact cameras nowadays have much longer zoom lenses than before. This is great for general use but for underwater work it presents a problem. Longer zooms are physically bigger than shorter ones, and that means that the housing to encompass them must also be that much bigger and more specifically wider so the camera does not see the edge of the housing around the lens and cause vigneting. This makes fitting an accessory wide angle lens very difficult, if not impossible. We’ll talk about this more in a while.

The other major consideration when choosing a camera for UW use is custom or manual white balance. This is little used in general photography, most people opting for the AWB (auto white balance) setting, but for a diver, manual white balance is a godsend. It enables you very easily to add back in the colour lost underwater – and without further ado, let’s discuss that in more detail.

Manual White Balance

Daylight is a mixture of different coloured light. Cameras ‘see’ light differently to the way we do. We don’t tend to notice the way light appears differently indoors to out, or how different a fluorescent tube looks to an old fashioned light bulb; but the colour of their light varies, and it’s called colour temperature. Take a shot indoors without flash and the picture will look warm. Using a flash, which is essentially the same colour as daylight, corrects this tint. Thankfully digital cameras have onboard firmware that corrects these different colour temperatures. This feature is called AWB – auto white balance, and it’s the default setting on pretty much all cameras nowadays. OK, OK, I’m getting there, honest – what has this got to do with UW photography? As you submerge deeper and deeper underwater, red light is progressively absorbed, and photos look bluer and bluer. Enter manual white balance. This camera function is a godsend for divers. It enables us to add back in the red light lost at depth, and it does it very accurately. Additionally, as you manually set it, it is accurate for the depth you are at. Most cameras capable of being housed have an underwater mode; why not just use this? This mode only adds back in a set amount of red, which only correctly works at one specific depth, normally around ten metres. Above this depth it is adding too much red and below not enough. The manual or custom mode lets you set the white balance for your precise depth ensuring your pictures always look colourful.

Wide Angle Lenses.

The other cornerstone of UW photography that we talked about right at the beginning is the use of wide lenses. As I mentioned previously, it’s the water itself that is the biggest problem we encounter. Whatever camera you use whilst underwater you still have to take photos through the water, and the less water you shoot through the sharper and clearer the end result will be. For this reason it is very important when choosing a camera to accompany you on your sub-sea adventures that you pick one that will enable an accessory lens to be fitted, so check availability of accessories before you commit to purchase.

Depending on the camera’s lens – 24, 28 or 35mm on the back end – a typical add on lens will convert this to around about 16mm. Accessory lenses for UW use are normally measured in terms of field of view and measured loosely in degrees. For example, Inon’s UWL-H100 lens has a field of view of about 100°. What this means in real terms is that with a suitable compact camera, even a large subject (a wreck for example) can be photographed in its entirety from only a few metres away as opposed to tens of metres away without the add on lens, and therefore shooting through much less water, which makes for a cleaner, sharper and more colourful image. This also applies for smaller subjects, but this is where your buoyancy control comes in; you need fine control to manoeuvre very close to a small fast moving subject like an anemone fish.

Combine the use of wide angle lenses with custom white balance and you’ve got a very good basic understanding of underwater photography.

Of course this is only really rippling the surface of this field; we haven’t talked about macro, strobes, filters, locations and a wealth of other topics. We’ll talk about some of these another time.


Ocean Art 2020 Winners Announced!



Ocean Art Contest Announces the Best Underwater Photos of the Year

The prestigious Ocean Art Underwater Photo Competition, organized by the Underwater Photography Guide, has announced the best underwater photos this year with its 2020 winners. Despite global travel restrictions and the challenges brought by the Covid-19 pandemic, the 9th annual competition attracted an extremely high caliber of photos from oceans around the world. Underwater explorers captured photos locally, in select destinations currently open to travel, or revisited their archives to bring us some eye-catching photography. This unique assortment of photos could not have been possible without the help of our generous sponsors who have all had to navigate a changing travel and dive industry. Many of these same sponsors helped the Ocean Art competition raise money earlier in this year to raise money to donate to the WHO and CDC in their fight against Covid-19. These photos showcase the perseverance of underwater artistry amidst the adversity of the times.

All the winning photos can be seen at the Underwater Photography Guide at

The Best of Show is a once-in-a-lifetime moment of an octopus taking a selfie with the photographer and his curious family in the background. The photo was captured by photographer Gaetano Dario Gargiulo close to his home in the tide pools of Kamay Botany Bay National Park, New South Wales, Australia.  Other extraordinary winners include astonishing scenes of animal behavior, images that bring hope for the next generation of sea creatures, displays of ingenious photographic technique, and conservation scenes that reflect on not just the need to conserve our planet, but our species as well. The judges evaluated thousands of entries from 80 countries before selecting the final set of images as Ocean Art winners.

Ocean Art 2020 judges included prestigious underwater photographers Tony Wu, Mark Strickland, and Marty Snyderman.

Over $45,000 in prizes have be awarded, making the Ocean Art prize value among the highest in the world.

Ocean Art prizes are provided by some of the world’s top scuba diving resorts, liveaboard dive yachts, and underwater photo gear manufacturers. Grand prizes include a choice of 7 or 8 nights for two aboard the Coralia Liveaboard in Raja Ampat or Komodo, a 7 night liveaboard trip on the M.V. Bilikili in the Solomon Islands, a 7-night dive package with Villa Markisa, a 7 night dive package at Siladen Resort & Spa in Bunaken, a 12 night Passport to Paradise with Murex Dive Resorts and Lembeh Resort to three different Indonesian destinations, a 5-night dive vacation with AquaMarine Diving Bali & Ramayana Candidasa, a 7-night dive vacation at Atlantis Philippines Dive Resorts, and a variety of gift certificates from Bluewater Photo and Bluewater Travel. Premium travel prizes are provided by Volivoli Beach Resort (Fiji), Crystal Blue Dive Resort (Philippines), and Solitude Liveaboards & Resorts (Philippines and Indonesia). Premium gear prizes are provided by Sea & Sea and Ikelite. 12 different categories ensure a competitive contest for all levels and disciplines of underwater photography.

The photographic ingenuity from competitors is getting better every year – making judging very difficult and demonstrating that the winning images are some of the best in the world. Bluewater Photo and Bluewater Travel owner and Underwater Photography Guide publisher, Scott Gietler commented, “The Ocean Art team was thrilled to see that so many photographers were able to get out, dive, and immerse themselves in photography this year. The Best of Show was especially impressive. My only concern is that the octopus should get its share of the prize, as it did assist in taking the shot!” 

For more information, please visit 

Continue Reading

Gear Reviews

Gear Review: SeaLife SportDiver housing for iPhone (Watch Video)



In a video shot exclusively for, Jeff Goodman reviews the SeaLife SportDiver housing for Apple’s iPhone, used with the Sea Dragon 2500 Light.

For more information about Sealife Underwater Cameras visit the website by clicking here

Continue Reading

E-Newsletter Sign up!


This is the perfect start to your 2021 diving season… and at an incredible lead-in price of just £885 per person.

Jump on board the latest addition to the Emperor fleet and enjoy diving the famous sites of the Red Sea with this fantastic special offer. This itinerary takes in the wonderful South & St Johns from 26 February – 05 March 2021.  

Subject to availability – limited flight seats at this price so don't delay!

Call Diverse Travel on 01473 852002 or email to book your spot!

More Less

Instagram Feed

Facebook Feed

Facebook Pagelike Widget